Publicity Department of CPC Central Committee holds press conference on pursuing innovation-driven development strategy to build a country strong in science and technology
Beijing | 10 a.m. June 6, 2022

The Publicity Department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) held a press conference in Beijing on Monday about pursuing the innovation-driven development strategy to build a country strong in science and technology.

Speakers

Wang Zhigang, minster of science and technology

Hou Jianguo, president of the Chinese Academy of Sciences

Li Xiaohong, president of the Chinese Academy of Engineering

Zhang Yuzhuo, vice president of the China Association for Science and Technology (CAST) and chief executive secretary of the Secretariat of CAST

Li Jinghai, president of the National Natural Science Foundation of China

Chairperson

Shou Xiaoli, spokesperson of the Publicity Department of the CPC Central Committee

Read in Chinese

Speakers:

Wang Zhigang, minister of science and technology

Hou Jianguo, president of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)

Li Xiaohong, president of the Chinese Academy of Engineering (CAE)

Zhang Yuzhuo, vice president of the China Association for Science and Technology (CAST) and chief executive secretary of the Secretariat of CAST

Li Jinghai, president of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC)

Chairperson:

Shou Xiaoli, spokesperson of the Publicity Department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC)

Date:

June 6, 2022

Shou Xiaoli:

Ladies and gentlemen, good morning. Welcome to this press conference held by the Publicity Department of the CPC Central Committee. This is the sixth press conference under the theme of "China in the past decade." Today, we have invited Mr. Wang Zhigang, minister of science and technology; Mr. Hou Jianguo, president of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS); Mr. Li Xiaohong, president of the Chinese Academy of Engineering (CAE); Mr. Zhang Yuzhuo, vice president of the China Association for Science and Technology (CAST) and chief executive secretary of the Secretariat of CAST; and Mr. Li Jinghai, president of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), to brief you on China's innovation-driven development strategy to build a country strong in science and technology, and to take your questions.

Now, let's give the floor to Mr. Wang for his introduction.

Wang Zhigang:

Ladies and gentlemen, friends from the media, good morning. First of all, I would like to thank all friends from the media for your long-term interest, understanding and support for the cause of scientific and technological innovation. I am very glad to meet with you today along with my colleagues from the scientific field and to share with you the developments in sci-tech innovation in the past decade. We are very happy to discuss issues of interest with you.

Since the 18th CPC National Congress, the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core has taken innovation as the primary driving force for development and put it at the heart of the overall development of the Party and the country. With Chinese characteristics and the overall trend of global development in mind, the CPC Central Committee has created plans and arrangements for sci-tech innovation in the new era based on the features of the current situation. Our goal is to build China into a country of innovators and a country strong in science and technology; our position is to take independent sci-tech capabilities as a strategic support for national development; our strategy is to continuously and fully drive development through innovation; and our path is to firmly follow independent innovation with Chinese characteristics. The blueprint for China's sci-tech undertaking has been drawn, and the cause of sci-tech innovation is being steadily advanced.

Over the past decade, under the strong leadership of the CPC Central Committee, with the concerted nationwide efforts of the scientific and technical field and its personnel, China's sci-tech cause has experienced major historic, holistic and structural changes, turning the country into a nation of innovators and helping it blaze a development path transitioning from strong talent and sci-tech capabilities to strong industries, economy and state. China's total investment in research and development (R&D) increased from 1.03 trillion yuan in 2012 to 2.79 trillion yuan in 2021, and its proportion of R&D spending increased from 1.91% to 2.44% of GDP. China rose to 12th on the World Intellectual Property Organization's Global Innovation Index in 2021, up from 34th in 2012. China's position and role in the global innovation landscape have undergone new changes. China is not only an important participant in cutting-edge international innovation, but also a significant contributor to the resolution of global issues.

Over the past decade, local regions, departments and sci-tech personnel across the country have thoroughly implemented the strategic arrangements of the CPC Central Committee; central and local governments have coordinated their efforts; the eastern, central and western regions have cooperated on innovation; and sci-tech, industries and the financial sector have achieved integrated development. Coordinated efforts have been made to support growth, deepen reform and expand opening-up, gathering the force of the whole country together to press ahead with innovation. 

We have formed a new strategic structure for sci-tech innovation that supports development and ensures security based on four aspects we are faced with. Facing the international frontier of science and technology, we have remained goal-oriented and upheld free exploration at the same time, and made a number of original achievements with international influence in such fields as quantum information, stem cells and brain science. Facing the main battlefield of the economy, we have applied high-quality science and technology to drive industries toward the medium- and high-end, and ensured the safety and stability of industrial and supply chains. The application of emerging technologies such as supercomputing, artificial intelligence, big data and blockchain has accelerated, which has created a boom in the digital economy and other new industries and business forms. Facing major national needs, we have moved faster to make breakthroughs in key, core technologies, and reinforced weak links and strengthened capabilities in priority areas of strategic importance. We have supported the smooth implementation of major projects such as the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge and the Sichuan-Tibet Railway. Deep-sea oil and gas as well as coal have been utilized cleanly and efficiently, and new nuclear power technologies have provided strong guarantees for national energy security. Facing people's lives and health, high-level forces have been organized nationwide to make scientific research breakthroughs in pandemic emergency response, and a set of sci-tech innovations have been achieved in vaccines, drugs, testing reagents and other areas, which has strongly supported the pandemic prevention and control work. Innovative drugs, domestic high-end medical equipment, and advanced diagnosis and treatment technologies have allowed people to benefit from more high-quality innovations.

We have remained committed to promoting innovation through reform and fully stimulated the enthusiasm and creativity of innovators and researchers in all areas. People hold the key to sci-tech innovation. Reforms to the sci-tech system over the past decade have made their way into people's lives, and the systems and mechanisms for cultivating, utilizing, evaluating, galvanizing and introducing talent have been improved. Reforms to sci-tech plans and research funding management have relieved the burden on scientific researchers, the development of research integrity has created a good environment for innovation, and the capacities of innovators have been enhanced. The construction of a national laboratory system with Chinese characteristics has been accelerated, the capabilities of high-level research universities and scientific research institutes have been consistently boosted, a group of internationally competitive sci-tech enterprises have been thriving, and the national innovation system has become more efficient and smoother. 

We have remained steadfast in opening wider and developed a new pattern of all-dimensional, multi-tiered and wide-ranging international sci-tech cooperation. Openness and collaboration are intrinsic to development underpinned by science and technology, and indispensable for addressing global challenges. Over the past 10 years, we have pursued a strategy of open, inclusive and mutually beneficial international sci-tech cooperation, and have made constant progress regarding collaborations in the field with 161 countries and regions. Innovation under the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) has been accelerated. Our joint research with other countries in fields including climate change, food security, and people's lives and health have yielded fruitful results. In the future, China will open its science and technology sector even wider. We are ready to exchange and cooperate with sci-tech counterparts from more countries and to make greater contributions to global sci-tech progress and sustainable development.

At the same time, we are keenly aware that there are still many weaknesses and shortages in China's sci-tech innovation in terms of originality, high-end personnel, and key, core technologies. We need to seize important development opportunities while dealing with a series of risks and challenges. We believe that under the strong leadership of the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, the nationwide sci-tech community will further strengthen its confidence in innovation, strive to overcome difficulties, scale new heights and speed up the promotion of high-level independent science and technology. We will make new strides and achieve new accomplishments on the new journey toward building a country strong in science and technology, and pave the way for a successful 20th CPC National Congress with concrete actions.

Thank you.

Shou Xiaoli:

Thank you, Mr. Wang, for the introduction. Now the floor is open to questions. Please identify your media outlet before raising questions.

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Xinhua News Agency:

Since the 18th CPC National Congress, scientific and technological innovation has played an increasingly prominent role in economic and social development. As for implementing the requirements put forward by General Secretary Xi Jinping for developing cutting-edge technologies to spur economic growth, to meet the country's critical needs, and to improve the people's health, what role has scientific and technological innovation played in supporting China's high-quality development? What are the future plans and considerations? Thank you.

Wang Zhigang:

Thank you for your questions. First, we need to identify what high-quality development is. One of the major indicators for high-quality development is to shift the growth model from being factor-driven to innovation-driven, which is also one of the most important features of high-quality development. Second, how does science and technology support high-quality development? Science and technology should play its role in such areas as development of industries, companies, and regions, as well as major projects, and the building of talent pool. We need to promote the role of science and technology, which achieve far-reaching penetration and are of transformational significance and give impetus to high-quality development, offering technical support and nurturing new growth areas. New science and technology always help with the development of new industries. 

First, science and technology have led the development of emerging industries. Application of artificial intelligence, big data, blockchain, quantum communication, and other emerging technologies have created new products and new business models such as smart terminals, remote medical services, and online education. China's digital economy ranks second in the world. Technological breakthroughs have removed impediments to China's emerging industries. China is also among the top in the world in terms of the solar photovoltaic industry, wind power, new-type displays, solid-state lighting, and advanced energy conservation. 

Second, science and technology have helped upgrade traditional industries. With more than 20 years' research and development of battery electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, fuel-cell electric vehicles, and battery and management systems, driving motor and power electronics and internet and intelligent technologies, China has formed a relatively complete layout for scientific and technological innovation in the new energy vehicles (NEVs) sector. NEV production and sales ranked first globally for a seventh straight year. China is rich in coal, which is the country's primary source of energy. Therefore, the country has accelerated R&D on the clean and efficient use of coal. R&D on ultra-supercritical electricity generators with an installed capacity of one million kW has been ongoing for 15 years, with coal consumption falling to the coal equivalent of 264 grams per kilowatt-hour, which is much less than the national average and leads the world. So far, related technology and demonstrative projects have been promoted across the country, accounting for 26% of the total installed capacity of coal-fired power. 

Third, the building of major projects has been underpinned by science and technology. A series of major projects, including an ultra-high-voltage power transmission project, networking of the Beidou navigation satellites, and Fuxing bullet trains, were put into operation in recent years, which are all supported by major technological breakthroughs. The operation of Deep Sea No.1, China's self-developed deep-water gas field, demonstrates the country's capability of ultra deep-water drilling for oil and gas, with its operational water depth exceeding 1,500 meters.

Fourth, science and technology have enhanced the competitiveness of companies. Companies continued to increase their spending on science and technology. Their R&D spending accounted for more than 76% of the country's total. China increased the additional tax deduction for R&D expenses from 50% in 2012 to 75% in 2018, and then increased this deduction to cover 100% of such expenses for small and medium sci-tech enterprises and manufacturing companies. The number of new- and high-tech enterprises grew from 49,000 over 10 years ago to 330,000 in 2021, and their R&D spending accounted for 70% of all companies' spending on R&D in the country. Tax paid by new- and high-tech enterprises increased from 0.8 trillion yuan in 2012 to 2.3 trillion yuan in 2021. New- and high-tech enterprises accounted for over 90% of the companies listed on the sci-tech innovation board of the Shanghai Stock Exchange and Beijing Stock Exchange.

Fifth, science and technology have promoted innovation in regional development. Beijing, Shanghai, and the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area have played a leading role in pursuing innovation-driven development, with their R&D spending accounts for more than 30% of the total. In Beijing and Shanghai, 70% and 50% of their transaction volume of technology contracts, respectively, were signed with other provinces and cities, demonstrating their role in leading innovation-driven development. A total of 169 national new- and high-tech development zones are home to one-third of the country's new- and high-tech enterprises, with per capita labor productivity in these regions being 2.7 times the national average. These companies provide 9.2% of jobs for college graduates nationwide. From January to April, revenues in national new- and high-tech development zones increased by 7.8% year on year to 13.7 trillion yuan, demonstrating a steady growth momentum. 

Sixth, we have cultivated top sci-tech talents. Well-trained professionals and strong sci-tech capacity are the prerequisite for a country to become great and prosperous. They are also the most enduring driving force and a most important leading force for high-quality development. We attached greater importance to talents and regarded them as the primary resource. We discovered, trained, and cultivated talents in our progress of pursuing innovation. A great number of sci-tech professionals forged ahead together in an unyielding spirit and made major breakthroughs in core technologies, such as manned spaceflight, satellite navigation, and deep water exploration. On Sunday, China launched the spaceship Shenzhou-14, marking the beginning of a new era in the development of its space station. China is also home to a great number of internationally competitive high-tech companies, which have made great contributions to solving critical scientific questions and removing barriers in social and economic development.

Next, we will accelerate and strengthen basic research. Integrated development of applications and technological innovation will be put in place. We will reinforce the principal position of enterprises in innovation, continue to sharpen our competitive edge in development, and build new power engines to achieve high-quality development. Thank you.

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CNR:

General Secretary Xi Jinping has put forward that the popularization of science and sci-tech innovation are of equal importance. What progress has China made in improving the science literacy of the people? What are the problems that need to be addressed? What is the focus of our future works? Thank you.

Zhang Yuzhuo:

Thank you for your questions. Over the past decade, thanks to the popularization of science, China has seen significant improvement in the proportion of scientifically literate Chinese citizens. During the 13th Five-Year Plan period, in 2015, the proportion of scientifically literate Chinese citizens was 6.2%. In 2020, the proportion increased to 10.56%. The uptick was mainly caused by the improvement in organizing activities to help people learn more about science. We built an organizational system for popularizing science in which provincial-level authorities integrated policies and working mechanisms, municipal-level authorities established centers for distributing resources, and county-level authorities put measures into practice. Based on the new era civilization practice centers and community service centers, we have established a system for popularizing science at the community level which is carried out through the means of voluntary service. Our organization system covers six aspects, including the brand, platform, mechanism, team, reform, and fronts. China Science Communication is just one of our brand products, which provides online and offline services to help people learn more about science. Files on the China Science Communication platform contained a total of 53 terabytes of data, which can be promoted through 715 distribution channels of all kinds. The total visits of the platform have reached 41.6 billion so far. It has become the most authoritative popular-science platform in the country and also played an important role in epidemic prevention and control works.

In addition, the modern system of science and technology museums with Chinese characteristics has developed rapidly. The number of brick-and-mortar science and technology museums has grown from 118 in 2012 to 408 at present. A noteworthy highlight is our itinerant science and technology exhibition program, an initiative with Chinese characteristics aiming to promote the joint development and sharing of popular science resources and enhance the social benefits of these resources. The program has so far been carried out at 4,944 stops, and the mileage of popular science caravans used for such exhibitions has exceeded 50 million kilometers. Moreover, 1,112 science and technology museums have been built in rural middle schools. The number of users of China's digital science and technology museums has reached more than 15 million. The modern system of science and technology museums has so far served more than 850 million people offline. We have also developed a "Science Facts" platform to refute misinformation about science together with relevant ministries and committees, mobilized 125 well-known domestic institutions to launch the China Alliance for Scientific Literacy, and successfully encouraged 2.13 million science and technology workers to register as science and technology volunteers. International cooperation has also deepened. In line with the spirit of the congratulatory message of General Secretary Xi Jinping to the first World Conference on Science Literacy in 2018, which has now been held for four editions, we have pushed forward the preparations for the establishment of the World Organization for Science Literacy and further developed such initiatives as the Belt and Road Teenager Maker Camp.

Nonetheless, as you just noted, there is still a significant imbalance in science literacy between urban and rural areas and among different regions, and we need to make persistent efforts. First, primarily led by the National Action Plan for Science Literacy, we will strengthen coordination among different ministries and committees and get the whole society more involved so that everyone will be popularizing science for the benefit of all. Second, we will guide the flow of popular science resources and services in favor of less developed areas, especially the western regions. We will vigorously carry out science and technology initiatives in Xinjiang and Tibet to aid their development and bring prosperity to border areas and their residents to narrow the gap among regions. Third, we will continue to promote popular science programs in rural areas as part of the efforts to achieve rural vitalization. Focusing on members of the village branches of the Party and villagers' committees as well as high-caliber farmers, we will push for a general improvement in the science literacy of rural residents. We will further carry out volunteer science and technology service initiatives to help address the imbalance between urban and rural development.

Thank you.

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Science and Technology Daily:

In the past decade, from the manned spaceship to the Chang'e lunar probe, from the hybrid rice to nuclear power, a number of major projects and equipment from China have attracted worldwide attention. Could you share with us how engineering technology has supported the high-quality development of the Chinese economy? What is the role of the CAE in it? Thank you.

Li Xiaohong:

Thank you for your questions. I'm Li Xiaohong from the CAE. When attending the International Conference on Engineering Science and Technology on June 3, 2014, President Xi Jinping delivered the speech "Let Engineering Science and Technology to Create a Better Future for Humankind," which, I believe, offers a profound insight into engineering science and technology and fully emphasizes the importance of engineering science and technology in economic development. During the past decade, since the 18th CPC National Congress in particular, under the strong leadership of the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, China made historic achievements in engineering science and technology. It can be said that the past decade has seen China's most significant progress in engineering science and technology and the fastest improvement in scientific and technological strength. I would like to make three points:

First, a large number of world-class projects were completed during the decade. In terms of space exploration, there is the Tianwen-1 Mars probe, the space station core module Tianhe and the Chang'e lunar probe. At sea, there is the Deep Sea No.1, the country's self-operated deep-water gas field. On land, China's high-speed railways, dams, bridges, and ports are all its hallmarks in the world. We all know that China's high-speed railways have attracted worldwide attention. Regarding bridges, the famous Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge is the longest cross-sea bridge in the world. Concerning dams, you probably know the Three Gorges Dam, but we also have the Xiangjiaba Dam, Xiluodu Dam, and Baihetan Dam, among other water conservancy projects. These are all major projects that have been accomplished through development in science and technology in the past decade, and all of them involve efforts from members of the CAE. However, the most important factor behind all these achievements, I think, is that China has given play to its unique new system of concentrating nationwide effort and resources on key national undertakings under the strong leadership of the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core.

Second, members of the CAE have also contributed to major scientific and technological breakthroughs. Whether it is the development of future vehicles and data ports or the development of industrial and supply chains, 5G, Beidou satellites, new energy, advanced nuclear energy, and UHV power transmission, members of the Chinese Academy of Engineering have all pitched in.

Third, engineering science and technology have delivered more benefits to the people. As we all know, food security would be impossible without academician Yuan Longping. Academicians Zhong Nanshan, Zhang Boli, and Chen Wei have contributed to the Healthy China initiative and the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. Engineering science and technology have also helped win the battles against air, water, and land pollution and strongly supported the continuous improvement of the ecological environment. In addition, the CAE has made an important contribution to the west-to-east gas transmission project, the south-to-north water transfer project, the Sichuan-Tibet Railway project, the east-to-west computing resource transfer project, as well as poverty alleviation through science and technology and the realization of the first centenary goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. That's all I would like to say. Thank you.

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Global Brazilian Newspaper:

The recent measures of the State Council to boost the economy highlight incentives to the technology sector. Which specific areas of the technology industry could have most in the recovery of the economy from the COVID lockdowns? Do the recent measures mean an ease on the regulatory restrictions that were applied on the sector last year? 

Wang Zhigang:

Thank you for your questions. While having important roles to play when the economy and industry develop smoothly, science and technology have greater roles to play when economic and industrial development encounter problems or challenges. You asked about the specific areas of technology or disciplines that will provide more support to economic development or have the potential to solve bigger economic problems. In fact, in terms of science itself, disciplines cross each other. To truly form economic activities, industrial scales, and products requires the organic combination of different disciplines and different fields. Only in this way can the development of the economy be supported. As far as economic or industrial fields are concerned, multiple economic or industrial fields need to develop in tandem. Of course, the structures of various industries are not necessarily the same. Some account for a higher proportion, and some for a lower proportion. There are underlying reasons for this. We need to use the methodologies and ways of thinking of the system theory to study how to promote the scientific and technological elements in economic development.

Regarding science and technology restriction or supervision you just mentioned, in fact, any government's management consists of two aspects: incentive and restriction. There is no case of incentives only or restrictions only. Instead, incentives and restrictions are applied as is necessary. The most important thing is to judge how many positive benefits they can bring to economic and social development and see whether they are in line with scientific and technological development laws and corporate development and comply with laws and regulations. This is the case in all countries. Our country places incentives in a more important position more often, believing that our entrepreneurs and enterprises can make more positive contributions to the entire economy, society, and people's wellbeing while achieving corporate development in line with regulations. This is the foremost criterion. Under this criterion, we make adjustments as circumstances change. Given different times, targets, occasions, and fields, we adopt different adjustments and make the right choice.

Thank you.

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China Media Group (CMG):

China has forged ahead and overcome challenges in reforming the science and technology management system. What progress has been made in this regard since the 18th CPC National Congress? What are the priorities for future reforms? What hard measures will be adopted? Thank you.

Wang Zhigang:

Thank you for your question. It is an important issue. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, the reform of the science and technology management system has been an essential component in China's reform efforts and has always been given a top priority. The development of science and technology should support scientific and technological activities and provide the driving force for development. We have always pursued the innovation of science and technology and that of systems and institutions. The innovation of systems and institutions means reform. Productivity decides relations of production, which are both subject and conducive to productivity. Science and technology are productive, and their reform is mainly to improve the relations of production. Through the reform, key players, activities, and environment in China's innovation will be enhanced to encourage more people to devote themselves to science and technology and to stimulate the enthusiasm and creativity for innovation, which has been reflected in laws, policies, culture and the spirit of our nation's scientists.

The 143 reform tasks set out in the Implementation Plan for Deepening Scientific and Technological System Reform have been completed. Recently, we have introduced a three-year action plan to advance the reform of the science and technology management system. That is to say, in addition to the 143 tasks, further reforms are needed to deal with some tough issues.

We have introduced new rounds of interlocking reforms one after another to go deeper. The reform will not stop. The changing development situation requires us to deepen reform to make China's systems, institutions, and social and cultural atmosphere better meet the needs of scientific and technological development and the demands of scientists and technicians.

First, we have deepened the reform of evaluation and incentive systems for science and technology. Using evaluation as a baton, we can evaluate them by praise and criticism, or by reward and punishment and other means. How to classify them is key in evaluation. Basic research, technological innovation, the application of scientific and technological advances, and high-tech industries have different evaluation methods because each has a different target despite being interrelated. The national science and technology regulators should have an overall plan and detailed classifications for innovation entities, focusing on both the interplay between different types of innovation entities and their differences, which is an important aspect of science and technology evaluation. The evaluation aims to arouse people's enthusiasm for and enduring dedication to sci-tech research, having their research focus on the major needs of economic and social development as well as those of national security, and identify scientific and technological issues more accurately to shore up the weak links in China's development.

Second, we have further reformed research programs' management and funding. Funds serve researchers, and the program management should be oriented to the frontiers of science and technology, the main battleground of the economy, the major national needs, and the people's lives and health. Management of science and technology projects should make funds more efficient and standardized. The majority of the sci-tech personnel in China are good and trustworthy. The management should be based on the trust that they can devote themselves to scientific research and properly use funds, with many of them bound to deliver.

Meanwhile, we must use institutional means to better manage the funds. Some scientists need to take responsibility for their research, and some young scientists need to be given opportunities. All of these need to be achieved by managing program funds so that the funds can truly serve people's creative activities.

Third, we have solved the problem of applying for scientific and technological advances. We have revised the Law on Promoting the Application of Scientific and Technological Advances to grant as much as possible the right to use, dispose of, and benefit from the application of scientific and technological achievements to the entities and individual innovators, giving rise to several supporting chains and platforms, including makers' spaces, incubators, and accelerators for tech firms. Whoever wants to make the application will be provided with services and supports from the government in different stages. In 2021, the transaction of technology contracts nationwide reached 3.73 trillion yuan, exceeding the country's total R&D expenditure of 2.79 trillion yuan, which is 5.8 times that of ten years ago.

Fourth, we have championed the spirit of our nation's scientists. Their spirit is an important part of China's science and technology culture. We should foster the spirit to guide the development of science and technology and form scientific values. We have issued a special policy document in this regard to promote the spirit. Just now, Mr. Li Xiaohong mentioned that many scientists had made remarkable achievements in major programs during the fight against COVID-19. They tend to be prompt in action and prudent in speech, bury themselves in their work and make great contributions. We should pass on the spirit from generation to generation to attract young generations to join the scientific research community, so that China's science and technology will have a promising prospect.

Next, we will continue our reform efforts. Reform lends momentum to innovation; innovation drives development. We will continue to promote sci-tech innovation to support the country's socio-economic development, national security, and people's health. Thank you.

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China Daily:

In recent years, we often see in the media that the CAS has made world-renowned achievements, such as the submersible Deep Sea Warrior, quantum computing prototype, and synthetic starch from carbon dioxide. Mr. Hou, could you please introduce the representative achievements the CAS has made over the past ten years as a national strategic scientific and technological force? Thank you.

Hou Jianguo:

Thank you for your question. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, General Secretary Xi Jinping has required the CAS to take the lead in achieving leapfrog development in science and technology, building innovation talent centers, developing national high-level think tanks for science and technology, and establishing world-class research institutions. The CAS is also required to accelerate building sources of innovation and making breakthroughs in key and core technologies and strive to seize an advantageous position in sci-tech development. We feel honored to take the mission and are aware of the heavy responsibility. Over the past ten years, the research staff of the CAS has been committed to this mission, overcome difficulties, and scaled new heights to deliver a slew of global leading landmark achievements.

First, we have stuck closely to national strategic needs, playing a key role in guaranteeing major national projects and breaking through technical bottleneck problems. For example, during the manned space flight projects, the CAS has taken charge of space application systems and developed hundreds of sets of payloads. Amid the lunar exploration programs, we have mainly undertaken tasks including ground application systems and payload subsystems, providing crucial technical support for the "Chang'e" lunar probe to conduct scientific explorations. During the construction process of the BeiDou-3 Navigation Satellite System, we have undertaken the task of researching and developing a total of 12 satellites. Centering on the commanding heights in the fields of deep space and deep sea, a batch of science satellites, including "Wukong," "Mozi," "Huiyan," "Taiji" and "Guangmu," developed by CAS, have helped boost China's standing in space science international competitions. We have successfully developed a set of spectral deep-sea equipment such as those manned submersibles "Shenhai Yougshi," "Fendouzhe," and "Haidou-1," marking the ability for China's deep-sea scientific research to reach depths of 10,000 meters. Focusing on major needs for components and parts such as aviation engine blades, super-resolution lithography machines, bionic synthetic rubbers, high-end bearings, and special high-performance materials, we have given full play to the advantages of a systematic and institutional system, made breakthroughs in a number of core technologies, and provided strong technical support to ensure the safety of industrial chains.

Second, we have developed cutting-edge technologies and strengthened fundamental research, constantly improved initial innovation capabilities, and accelerated the construction of original innovation sources. We have produced a set of major high-level original achievements in frontier fields of condensed matter physics, molecular science, nanometer materials, and stem cells, such as iron-based superconducting materials, nano-confined catalysis, quantum computer prototype, and artificial method of synthesizing starch from carbon dioxide, helping China to become a leader of such technologies in the world. In a nature index ranking that measures the quality of fundamental research, the CAS has ranked first among all global science institutions for nine consecutive years. The CAS has researched and developed an array of world-leading major sci-tech infrastructures that are known to all, such as the "China Sky Eye," large, high-altitude air shower observatory, and the Chinese "artificial sun." Those products have become tools for us to conduct fundamental research and scientific breakthroughs and supported us in producing a batch of major original achievements in the fields of pulsar research, neutrino oscillation, magnetic confinement fusion, and so on. At this point, I would like to clarify that all infrastructures mentioned above are open to scientists at home and abroad. At present, the "China Sky Eye" has provided scientific observation services for 27 scientific programs from 14 countries.

Third, we have promoted scientific research achievements to go commercial, transformed approximately 110,000 scientific results into commodities over the last decade, and boosted the high-quality development of China's enterprises. For example, the "Shuguang" supercomputer, artificial intelligence chips, stem cells to repair technology, and carbon ion cancer treatment devices developed by the CAS have promoted the development of related emerging industries. Multiple CAS-branded technologies, including producing ethanol and low-carbon olefin from coal, have successfully achieved commercialization and provided technology-driven solutions to promote clean and efficient utilization of coal resources and energy security. We have actively conducted scientific research to combat the epidemic, separated the world's first novel coronavirus strain, and developed multiple kinds of vaccines, detection reagents, and medicines to support the battle against COVID-19 with science and technology. In a bid to reinforce the protection and utilization of black soil, together with local provinces, we have mobilized over 1,000 scientists from 40 research laboratories to conduct the "Science and Technology Battle of Black Soil Granary" in the three provinces in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. This battle has gained initial success. Please refer to the handout for more detailed information on our latest sci-tech achievements.

Thank you.

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Guangming Daily:

Over the past few years, the NSFC has thoroughly carried out systematic reform, constantly improved fund performance, and been widely acknowledged among the scientific research community. I would like to ask, what measures have been taken to promote science fund reform, and what achievements have been made over the last few years? Thank you.

Li Jinghai:

Thank you for your attention to the science fund reform. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core has attached great importance to fundamental research. In the face of the critical historical period, interweaving global challenges and research-based reforms, the NSFC has intensely realized that deepening science fund reform and constantly improving fund performance is our mandatory historical mission and the responsibility of an era. Therefore, we have adhered to the concept of "science as the root, fairness as the life," and established the goal of building a science fund management system of the new era, featuring advanced concepts, normative systems, fairness, and high efficiency, and confirmed systematic reform schemes regarding three core tasks, including clarifying funding orientations, improving our appraisement mechanisms, and optimizing discipline layouts. I would like to point out that, any science funding institutions will focus on these three tasks.

After five years of constant efforts, our reforms have been rolled out in a gradual manner. I will briefly introduce the situation to you all. In terms of the fund management strategy reform, we have clarified our funding orientation, conducting classified applications and reviews according to the attributes of different scientific issues. The four types are: first, encouraging exploration and highlighting originality, known as the zero-to-one scientific breakthroughs; second, focusing on the cutting edge and opening new roads; third, being driven by needs and making breakthroughs; fourth, being orientated by universality, accommodation, and cross-connections. We have gradually expanded demonstration areas of classified application and review according to the attributes of four scientific issues. Last year, we accepted a total of 280,000 applications, 85% of which were reviewed using this new method. The quality of subjects selected by researchers has witnessed great progress.

Second, we have improved our appraisement mechanism, encouraging each one of reviewers regardless of whether they are senior reviewers or peer reviewers, to uphold their responsibilities, values, the credibility to make contributions. The demonstration area now covers 61% of the discipline, involving 46,000 evaluation experts. Their awareness of their responsibility and quality of appraisement has greatly improved. Judging from the feedback from applicants, they found that over 85% of these review comments were helpful or extremely helpful.

Third, we have optimized the discipline layout, aiming to solve the issue of excessive subject classification and the underlying problems of isolation and overlap among subjects. We have greatly simplified claim codes. By adjusting the three-tier code system to a two-tier one and reducing the number from over 3,500 to 1,300, we have taken the first step in optimizing the funding layout in accordance with the inherent logic and landscape of the knowledge system. This is not an easy task. Thereby, I would like to express my sincere gratitude for all the understanding and support received from the entire scientific research community.

Regarding fund management mechanism reform: first, we have implemented an originality-prioritized exploration program and established new mechanisms, including in-time acceptance of applications, pre-applications, and trans-disciplinary reviews. Moreover, we have supported innovative ideas in a timely manner. Over the past two years, we have funded a total of 204 applications of this kind.

Second, we have carried out the plan to upgrade the talent subsidy system, improving the funding system for talents who are engaged in fundamental research. The widely concerned National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars has expanded the number of funding projects from 200 to 315 per year. The number of funding projects of the National Science Fund for Excellent Young Scholars has increased from 400 to 630. Over the past four years, a total of 75,000 projects undertaken by young scientists have been funded, enabling a great number of young people to enter the field of fundamental research. The number of funding projects has increased year by year.

Third, we have reformed funds management of cross-disciplinary research. The Department of Interdisciplinary Science established last year has started funding talent-related programs in interdisciplinary fields and organized approval of significant projects.

Fourth, we have improved the mechanism for multiple investments in basic research. We have reformed the joint fund and specified the ratio of investments with different partners. According to the partners' public welfare nature, the ratio with enterprises is 1:4; the ratio with local governments is 1:3; the ratio with departments is 1:2. We have guided all sectors to increase investment and enhanced the ability of basic research to support major social and economic needs. During the agreement term, the joint fund has attracted 12.3 billion yuan of external investment. This year, the external investment attracted by the joint fund is equivalent to nearly 8% of the central financial input, which is quite a large proportion.

Fifth, we have optimized the mechanism for fund and project management. Researchers are given enough autonomy in a project for distinguished young scholars to use funds based on an overall rationing system. Then the system has been applied to projects for youth and outstanding young scholars. We have conducted a paperless application system, simplified the project application process, and carried out an evaluation system on representative works.

In terms of funds management and layout reform, we have integrated the original nine departments into four sections: basic science, technical science, life and medicine, and interdisciplinary science, according to the principle of promoting knowledge-application and cross-disciplinary integrations based on the logical structure of knowledge systems. We have broken disciplinary barriers and realized interdisciplinary integration to use macro-control funds to guide researchers in various fields to work together on major and complex issues.

Next, we will work on transforming the research paradigm and enhancing the capacity to refine scientific issues, which some young scholars are not good at. Besides solving the current problems, we will more actively explore the future to provide solid support in grasping new development stages, implementing new development concepts, building new development patterns, and promoting high-quality development. 

I would like to thank my colleagues in the relevant departments and sci-tech sectors and friends from the media for their attention to NSFC. Thank you.

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CNBC: 

I have two questions. First, what particular plan do you have to cultivate high-quality talents? Second, in what fields do you plan to invest so as to build China into a sci-tech power? How much will you invest and how will you guarantee the investment benefits? Thank you.

Wang Zhigang:

I will answer your questions, one is about talents, and the latter is about the use of sci-tech funds. High-quality development seeks to shift from factor-driven to innovation-driven. Innovation activities are human practices by nature, and innovation-driven development is essentially the growth of talent-driven; thus, talent is the most important aspect of implementing an innovation-driven development strategy.

In terms of talents, governments need to create a better environment and ecology so that more people can become talents, especially in the sci-tech innovation aspect, including strategic scientists, leading sci-tech and outstanding young talents, as well as tens of thousands of human forces engaged in scientific research in various fields. We need to provide a favorable environment and conditions in policies, laws, services, and culture. For talents working in basic research, technological innovation, achievement transformation, and high-tech application, we should set up an appropriate environment to make them better adapted and find their positions. We should not use a one size fit all approach to support and serve different talents; for example, talents working in basic research and enterprises should not be valued by a single standard. The structure and quantity of talents in China have been improved. China's number of talents ranks first globally, which is consistent with the country's population base and the all-round and all-system format of scientific research in China, whereas more high caliber talents have emerged in ushering in new fields, conducting leading programs and addressing frontier scientific issues. These talents are crucial in our efforts to build China to an innovative country and a sci-tech power and contribute more Chinese wisdom to the world's sci-tech progress.  

When it comes to the use of funds, we should ensure that it will be used to boost innovation. What kind of innovative activities do we need? What kind of innovation force do we have? What do they need? How to help them better engage in scientific research innovation? We should strengthen resource allocation both for basic research and basic applied research and for technological innovation and application.

Governments should clarify input direction to reflect national development strategy. Moreover, governments should guide enterprises to invest more in scientific and technological innovation. At the same time, we have carried out a series of international cooperation. Some of our scientists take projects as carriers during international cooperation, while others take platforms as carriers. The service and input of these carriers are also what we should support. We need to increase support for basic research because itis turning the unknown into the known, reducing uncertainties and increasing certainties. We need to find laws, methods, and technological paths to promote basic research. We will also focus on key areas that have a bearing on people's lives, health, and livelihood and take them as the emphasis of resource allocation for scientific research.

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Shenzhen Satellite TV:

In the past 10 years, what exploration has the CAS made to deepen the sci-tech system's reform and cultivate innovative talents? What are the good practices and experiences? Thank you.

Hou Jianguo:

Thanks for your questions. Mr. Wang introduced China's reform of the sci-tech system. In the past decade, the CAS has continued to deepen reform and made efforts to fully activate all factors, including institutions, talents, facilities, funds, and projects, so as to form a joint force for innovative development.

First, we have optimized the layout of scientific research. We have strengthened the strategic, leading, and collaborative nature of the scientific research layout and coordinated the layout among regions, fields, and innovation platforms. We have implemented the national strategy for regional development. We have actively participated in constructing comprehensive national science centers in Huairou of Beijing, Zhangjiang of Shanghai, and Hefei of Anhui province, and in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area. Several new research institutes have been established to meet major national strategic needs such as cyber security, aerospace information, rare earth resources, and ecological security. We have expanded international sci-tech cooperation in an active way with 10 science and education cooperation centers established overseas.

Second, we have promoted the reform of scientific research management. The CAS should strengthen the directional and systematic basic research work as a national strategic scientific and technological force. In other words, our basic research should refine scientific issues from the sci-tech frontier and meet the country's major needs. Therefore, we issued 10 basic research principles to reform topic selection mechanism, management methods, resource allocation, assessment and evaluation, and other aspects.

In order to ensure the smooth implementation of research tasks for key and core technologies, we have formulated the "eight-point policy" to guarantee key scientific researchers can concentrate on their research tasks and their other worries will be addressed. Just as Mr. Wang Zhigang mentioned, tackling bottleneck problems for key and core technologies requires the long and hard work of scientists and their great concentration and constant breakthroughs are needed. Therefore, we must institutionally ensure that our scientists can focus on their research tasks in the long term.

We have in particular given play to the institutional advantage of the CAS and strengthened interdisciplinary research and the coordination among different units as in a big corps. For example, in the formation of the Action Plan for Science and Technology to Support the Dual Carbon Goals, we have coordinated the strengths of the entire academy and made a full-chain plan from basic research, key and core technology breakthroughs and comprehensive demonstration.

Third, cultivating innovation talents. We have followed the guiding principles of the central conference on talent-related work, upheld the strategy of building an academy of talents, and pursued coordinated development of all talents. We continued to reform the academicians system to make it more academic and honor-oriented, optimize the structure of academicians, and encourage them to set good examples in four aspects. In order to encourage researchers' immersion in scientific research, we have established a system of specially hired researchers to offer them relatively stable support. We have created a plan to support young teams in basic research to encourage top young talents to tackle scientific challenges and conduct original research. Just now, Mr. Li Jinghai introduced that some of the research subjects of the NSFC are selected independently by scientists. For the young team support plan, the CAS first chooses generally-recognized major scientific conundrums and then selects through an open competition mechanism the best young candidates and their innovation teams to undertake long-term research on these conundrums.

We have also expanded the reserves of young scientific talents by recruiting more than 12,000 special research assistants who are mainly engaged in postdoctoral studies. In the past decade, the affiliated University of Science and Technology of China and the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences have nurtured and produced nearly 150,000 graduates. At the same time, we have vigorously carried forward the spirit of scientists and given full play to such fine traditions of the old-generation scientists as patriotism, dedication and truth-seeking to constantly enhance academic integrity and cultivate a clean and clear scientific research environment.

Next, the CAS will continue to follow the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, and aim to take national lead in achieving leapfrog sci-tech development, building a national hub of innovation talents, establishing a national high-level sci-tech think tank, and building an internationally first-class research institute. We will also aim to step up original innovation, strengthen research on key technologies, and strive to gain the high ground for science and technology. It will focus on its principal responsibility and major tasks and further play its central role in China's strategic vision for building strength in science and technology to score more major innovation achievements and make new contributions to China's efforts to become a country strong in science and technology and improve its independent scientific and technological capabilities at a faster pace. Thank you.

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China Youth Daily:

The CAE has set the aim to build a national high-end think tank that serves both national and local needs. Could you share with us the specific plans for this? What specific measures have been taken to promote high-quality development and build up China's strength in science and technology? Thank you.

Li Xiaohong:

Thank you for your questions. The CAE has recently set the aim to build a national high-end think tank that serves both national and local needs. The aim is based on the functions given to the CAE by the CPC Central Committee and the State Council. Nationally, the think tank will make suggestions, including many suggestions from academicians, to the CPC Central Committee and the State Council for reference when making major decisions. Locally, the think tank will offer strategic advice for local socio-economic development.

We have some considerations on how to build our team and the high-quality think tank in the future. According to the decisions and arrangements of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, and as General Secretary Xi Jinping said at the meeting conflating the general assemblies of the members of the CAS and the CAE last year, the CAS and the CAE are China's strategic sci-tech forces, which determines the positioning and mission of the two academies.

There are several things in consideration: First, we will continue to build up China's strategic strength in science and technology. We will continue deepening the reform of the academicians system, further optimize the structure and academic disciplines of academicians and promote them to play a greater role in major national projects and core and key technologies.

Second, we will build a national high-level think tank for engineering science and technology that serves both national and local needs. The think tank will be first-rate in China and renowned in the world. Nationally, the think tank will more actively make suggestions to the CPC Central Committee and the State Council. Locally, it will contribute more wisdom and strength to local socio-economic development. We have made specific plans for this.

Third, we will advance research on key and core technologies. The CAE can bring together academicians working at different places and units around the country. The nine academic divisions of the CAE have covered almost the leading figures of all areas of engineering science and technology. We can organize academicians and experts from different disciplines and fields to carry out joint research and serve national strategies, which is both our mission and our advantage.

Fourth, we should tell China's stories well in regard to global engineering science and technology governance. We should be more open-minded, promote innovative cooperation in global engineering science and technology with concrete measures, and improve the country's international stature in this field.

We will make more efforts to implement the strategic layout to be mapped out at the upcoming 20th CPC National Congress. 

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China News Service:

Over the past decade, China's hard power in science and technology has developed rapidly. The major projects mentioned by CAS President Mr. Hou and CAE President Mr. Li are of great international influence. In contrast, our sci-tech soft power, embodied by sci-tech journals, grows slowly. Many sci-tech personnel choose to submit their research papers to Western journals such as Nature and Science. I'd like to know your opinions on this, as well as what kind of progress has China made in terms of developing its sci-tech journals? Is there a detailed plan to improve our sci-tech soft power? Thank you.

Zhang Yuzhuo:

I'd like to take your questions. They are very professional, thank you. In recent years, the number of papers published by Chinse sci-tech personnel has skyrocketed, and as many as 680,000 were published in English journals in 2021. However, relatively few papers were published in domestic English journals, which has severely concerned the CPC Central Committee. In November 2018, General Secretary Xi Jinping presided over a meeting of the Central Commission for Comprehensively Deepening Reform, and a guideline on fostering world-class sci-tech journals was adopted. Since then, domestic sci-tech journals have witnessed notable development. The number of domestic sci-tech journals indexed in global influential retrieval systems has jumped from 152 to 257, with the average impact factor increased 2.9 times, from 1.13 to 4.42. A batch of journals have ascended to the top global rankings. Among them, 25 are listed in the top 5% of their respective subjects in terms of impact factor, 20 are top three in subject ranking, and three are among the global top 100. Despite noteworthy growth in domestic English journals, which have increased from 244 to 436, we still lag far behind, nowhere near satisfying the demand of Chinese sci-tech personnel in getting their papers published in journals of much higher impact factor. 

We have implemented an action plan for nurturing the finest sci-tech journals with the aims of increasing the quantity of leading journals, improving the quality of reserve journals, and ultimately producing more world-class journals. More than 50 new journals will be launched this year, and some English journals registered abroad can be registered at home if they meet certain requirements. Our next step is to speed up the cluster development and digitalization of sci-tech journals. We will cultivate a certain number of competitive publishing agencies and establish a digital publishing service platform of international stature as well as an open resource platform so as to attract more prominent scientists to contribute to the development of China's sci-tech journals and promote thesis and data sharing. Thank you. 

Li Xiaohong:

Mr. Zhang has made a very good point. I'd like to take the CAE's journals as an example to illustrate the development of China's sci-tech journals in the past decade. The structure of CAE's journals is "1+9+1." We have one flagship journal Engineering; nine affiliated journals covering such areas as energy, machinery, and information; and one Chinese journal. Our ambition is to make Engineering an equivalent to Science and Nature. Its impact factor has grown from less than one to close to 12 by the first half of 2022, the first among the world's comprehensive journals on engineering science and technology. It is remarkable progress widely acknowledged by the world. The nine affiliated journals also played their roles in their respective areas. Like what Mr. Zhang has said, we will endeavor to refine these journals to excellence. Thank you.

Shou Xiaoli:

Due to time constraints, we will take the last question.

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Sansha Satellite TV:

With every passing year, we have a more profound sense that science and technology have changed people's lives for the better. Concerning the role of science and technology in improving people's wellbeing, what specific measures have been taken, and what progress has been made? What has been done to ensure food security, support rural vitalization and benefit people's lives and health? And what are the next key tasks? Thank you.

Wang Zhigang:

Thank you for your question. Bringing benefits to the people through science and technology is an important mission. General Secretary Xi Jinping has mentioned four missions of scientific and technological development. He said scientific and technological development must target the global sci-tech frontiers, serve the main economic battlefields, strive to fulfill the significant needs of the country, and benefit people's lives and health. The last mission includes all aspects related to people. The contributions of science and technology to people's health and quality of life mainly include the following aspects.

First, science and technology are improving food security in two aspects. One concerns the land. In addition to arable land, there is development space for land in China. Science and technology are about making the impossible possible. China has been working hard for more than 10 or even 20 years to conserve and utilize arid and semi-arid lands, saline-alkali lands, red and yellow soil, and chernozem soil and has made great achievements. For example, targeting arid and semi-arid lands, the Yangling Agricultural High-tech Industrial Demonstration Zone has developed innovative planting methods and crop varieties over the past 20 years, which have been promoted nationwide, covering over 1 million hectares. For another example, concerning the development of saline-alkali lands, the Agricultural High-tech Industrial Demonstration Area of the Yellow River Delta, through six or seven years of hard work, has developed crops including rice and soybeans that can grow in lands with a salinity of 0.3% to 0.4%, with more than 6,667 hectares of rice having been planted. Furthermore, the Ministry of Science and Technology and the CAS have done a lot of work together to conserve chernozem soil. There are about 70 million hectares of arid and semi-arid lands and 103 million hectares of saline-alkali lands nationwide. One-third or one-fourth of these lands can be transformed into fertile farmland utilizing science and technology.

The other aspect concerns the seed industry. China has developed its own varieties of wheat, corn, hog, and poultry. In particular, all staple crops in China are of these varieties. China has lands and seeds, which are adapted to each other. Thus, science and technology strengthen food security.

Second, science and technology are ensuring energy security. Coal usage takes up the largest proportion of energy consumption in China. Therefore, science and technology play a crucial role in strengthening energy security and making energy consumption more environmentally friendly and energy-efficient to achieve peak carbon emissions and carbon neutrality. China has achieved a series of breakthroughs in ultra-supercritical power generation and has taken a leading position in ultra-high voltage transmission. Based on the resource endowment of coal, new scientific and technological advances will make it possible to reduce the impact of coal usage on the environment. As Mr. Hou has mentioned, coal-to-olefins technologies, coal-to-oil technologies, and an artificial method of synthesizing starch from carbon dioxide, are all important products of scientific and technological advances to ensure energy security and reduce carbon emissions.

Third, science and technology improve people's lives and health. In early 2020, at the very beginning of the outbreak of COVID-19, China isolated the virus strain within seven days and identified it as a novel coronavirus, which is much faster than SARS in 2003. The test reagent was developed seven days later, without which the development of an effective screening method would have been impossible. Therefore, General Secretary Xi Jinping has noted that as science played a decisive role in defeating the pandemic in history, we now need to rely more on science to fight COVID-19 by adopting science-based measures to prevent and control the pandemic and seek its origin through scientific research. It is by means of test reagents, medicines, and vaccines that we could build strong lines of defense, with the vaccine serving as one line of defense, Chinese traditional medicine being another line of defense, and the neutralizing antibody-drug and the small-molecule drug functioning as the third line of defense. These three lines of defense formed the scientific basis for the nine versions of diagnosis and treatment plans formulated successively.

Fourth, science and technology help address uneven and inadequate development in China. Some underdeveloped areas have paired up with Beijing, Shanghai, and Shenzhen to receive scientific and technological guidance and support in an attempt to tackle uneven development between urban and rural areas and among different regions through scientific and technological means. Moreover, scientific and technological support is needed to advance poverty elimination and rural vitalization. In conclusion, benefiting the people through science and technology is an important mission, and we still have a great deal of work to do. I mainly focus on these four aspects to give you an introduction. Thank you.

Shou Xiaoli:

Thank you to all speakers and friends from the media. Today's briefing concludes now. Goodbye.

Translated and edited by Cui Can, Huang Shan, Yuan Fang, Ma Yujia, Duan Yaying, Liu Qiang, Qin Qi, Wang Yiming, Lin Liyao, Li Huiru, He Shan, Xu Kailin, Wang Qian, Xu Xiaoxuan, Zhang Tingting, David Ball, Tom  Arnstein, and Jay Birbeck. In case of any discrepancy between the English and Chinese texts, the Chinese version is deemed to prevail.

/7    Shou Xiaoli

/7    Wang Zhigang

/7    Hou Jianguo

/7    Li Xiaohong

/7    Zhang Yuzhuo

/7    Li Jinghai

/7    Group photo